Key findings from the 2020 Hauora Health and Wellbeing survey for teachers and principals
Conducted by members of Research for Educational Impact (REDI), based at Deakin University, Melbourne, the research gathered data from 2415 primary school teachers and 473 principals across Aotearoa. Long working hours, heavy workloads and time pressures were cited as factors contributing to high levels of teacher stress. Teachers and principals also reported a lack of resourcing and difficulties accessing learning support as other major sources of work-related stress.
Check out our hauora webinar below.
Hours worked during school term
Primary school teachers in New Zealand work very long hours. Almost half work more than 50 hours per week. Primary principals work even longer hours. 70% reported working more than 50 hours per week. A large proportion reported working more than 55 hours a week (45.5%) and around one in five school leaders (19.9%) reported working more than 60 hours per week. Too many teachers and principals are working hours that place them at high risk of experiencing adverse psychological and physical health outcomes.
Stress at work
In this year’s survey, sheer quantity of work was reported as the biggest source of stress for primary school teachers and principals alike. For both groups, a lack of time to focus on teaching and learning was reported as the second biggest stressor. In both years of the survey (2019 and 2020), these two stressors have far exceeded the other sources of stress listed in the survey. The next biggest sources of stress were related to student learning needs and access to support. Concerns for student mental health were also high on the list for both teachers and principals.
Demands at work
The survey tests for five variables related to demands at work and assesses these against the general population. The five variables are Quantitative Demands, Work Pace, Cognitive Demands, Emotional Demands and Demands for Hiding Emotions.
In 2020, New Zealand primary school teachers and principals reported experiencing all five demands at work more often than the general population. Both groups reported experiencing more work than they can complete and regularly having to work at a fast pace. They regularly deal with emotionally challenging situations (emotional demands) and frequently must conceal their emotions at work (emotional labour).
The study also measures the possible consequences of work on family/personal life. The focus is on two areas, namely conflict regarding energy (mental and physical energy) and conflict regarding time. This year’s results indicate that teachers and principals experience high levels of conflict between work and home lives, well over one standard deviation above the rate of the general population. This result has serious implications for the long-term future of school personnel as their work is creating significant work-life stress. This finding should cause considerable concern for policy makers, as it relates directly to the Quantitative Demands of the role.
Primary school teachers reported various types of student related issues as a significant source of stress. Student behaviour and learning issues and a lack of support to deal with students’ additional needs caused teachers’ stress. Principals reported that resourcing needs and teacher shortages were significant sources of stress. They were also concerned for the mental health of their staff.
Access to support
While a lack of access to resources such as learning support was a source of stress for teachers and principals alike, both groups reported receiving support from professional relationships with their colleagues, suggesting that this is a major factor helping teachers and principals' cope. However, this is not enough as the evidence shows that high job demands, and low job resources may cause job strain and eventually result in burnout.
Too many teachers and principals are under significant stress and working hours that place them at high risk of experiencing adverse psychological and physical health outcomes. This result has serious implications for the long-term future of school personnel as their work is creating significant work-life stress. These findings should cause considerable concern for policy makers. We need to increase teacher supply and decrease teacher workloads to enable teachers and principals to do their work in a sustainable way. We also need to increase the provision of, and access to, learning support to ensure that our tamariki are best equipped to reach their potential.